Route Hazard Mapping

The identification and mapping of road hazards is critical to efforts in reducing road crashes through safer road design and road user behaviour change.

In 2013, Safe Way Right Way (SWRW) commissioned a project to map black spots on the Northern Corridor. The Kenya Police Service were instrumental in physical identification of black-spot sections and provided additional information on the patterns and nature of the crashes. 160 black spots were identified in 2013.

In 2017, SWRW commissioned the second phase of the route hazard-mapping project to capture evolution in black spots on the Northern Corridor and expanded the scope to include high-risk roads in Nairobi County as identified by the National Transport and Safety Authority.

The study was also necessary as some sections of the corridor were under construction in 2013. The Northern Corridor is approximately 930 kilometres and runs from Mombasa to Malaba through Nairobi, Nakuru and Eldoret. The Northern Corridor also consists of two arms; Nairobi to Naivasha through Mai Mahiu (52 kilometres) and Mau Summit to Busia through Kericho and Kisumu (approximately 340 kilometres). The Nairobi County high risks roads covered distance of 360 kilometres. The length of road surface mapped is approximately 1,682 kilometres.
The mapping exercise involved identification of new black spots and updating details of those captured in the 2013 survey. The black spot identification and provision of historical data was done by Kenya Police. Geographical coordinates and photos were captured by a team of GIS consultants.

A team of Kenya National Highways Authority (KeNHA), Kenya Urban Roads Authority (KURA) and National Transport and Safety Authority (NTSA) personnel recommended appropriate education, engineering and enforcement interventions for each black spot. The report provides detailed description of 273 black spots (74 in Nairobi and 199 on the Northern Corridor) identified in the mapping exercise. Information relating to time of day, seasons and vehicles involved in crashes is provided. This report also identifies the medical facilities where road crash victims are evacuated to. This report also captures key education, engineering and enforcement interventions for each of the black-spots.
This study notes that road traffic crashes are spread throughout the week, during the day and night and in both dry and wet seasons. Unsafe road user behaviour, inadequate infrastructure for non motorised transport, missing road signage were the major hazards noted in the study.

This study mapped various of points of interest including health facilities, police stations, North Star Alliance Wellness Centres, PIEA Rescue Centres, KeNHA Weighbridges; truck stops, bridges, schools, human settlements and cities on the Northern Corridor and in Nairobi.


This report recommends implementation of a range of engineering, enforcement and education interventions, for each black spot, to reduce road traffic fatalities and injuries.

    1. The recurring engineering interventions noted were missing signage, damaged road shoulders, inadequate road furniture and pedestrian crossing infrastructure. There is an urgent need to address this on a continuous basis through road audits
    2. In Nairobi, black spots exist largely due to lack of designated pedestrian crossings, underpasses and foot bridges in areas with high density in human population near busy roads. It is imperative that the needs of are vulnerable road users(pedestrians, children, the disabled and cyclists) are identified and prioritized in designing and implementing road infrastructure projects.
    3. The most common enforcement intervention noted related to speed management. This report advocates for fixed and random speed monitoring and enforcement in all black spot sections.
    4. A number of black spots exist due lack of adequate parking facilities. There is need for development of adequate and secure road side parking spaces along the Northern Corridor. On 28 April 2015, the East African Community held an investor conference for construction of 67 road side stations as part the Northern Corridor transport and infrastructure services. Twenty two sites were identified in Kenya (see report Annex 10). The road side stations are meant to provide long distance travelers with a range of amenities including adequate parking. This report calls for the prompt implementation of this project to ensure safe and adequate parking along the Northern Corridor.
    5. This report calls for sustained road user awareness campaigns on the identified risk factors. This study also recommends the training of drivers in defensive driving techniques to improve hazard perception and driving at speeds appropriate to prevailing road conditions.
    6. This study identifies six education institutions within black-spot sections. These schools require targeted interventions to improve the environment and equip pupils with the necessary skills to be safe on the road
    7. A number of areas, under road construction, were noted to have poor worksite safety practices. There is need to install reflective signage to improve visibility for motorists at night. Workers on road construction sites should also wear reflective jackets.
    8. There is need to improve post crash care for road crash victims.This report notes that only 77 medical facilities serve road crash victims from the 273 identified black spots. These facilities are located far from the black spots sections.

protect road reserves from encroachment. County governments should be involved to ensure they do not license traders who encroach on road reserves and pedestrian walkways.

  • There is also need to ensure adequate street lighting in black spots sections in populated areas.
  • Dissemination of this report to the public is a critical to creating awareness and behavior change. This report calls for development of mobile application that can be downloaded by members of the public. The application can be part of the existing NTSA mobile app.
  • There is need for adoption of an overall multi agency strategy to effectively address the road safety challenge through implementation of identified education, enforcement and engineering interventions. This report has been shared with County Road Safety Committees through NTSA for effective implementation of interventions relating to devolved functions.
  • Finally, this report calls for mapping of black spots on other major roads within Kenya.


These report recommendations have been endorsed by NTSA, National Police Service, KeNHA and KURA (see report Foreword).

Northern Corridor and Nairobi High Risk Road Blackspot Mapping

Black Spot Map Driver Handbook

18 route hazard map

Nairobi Maps

Northern Corridor and Nairobi County Route Hazard Mapping Report